### Introduction

Delighted

hook_schema is one of those methods where you are happy to have a usable documentation on the api website. It is pretty much self-explanatory and you don’t have to look for hours on third parties websites to get some usable information. 🙂

• hook_schema on api.drupal.org and don’t forget to select your Drupal version!
• $DRUPAL_ROOT\core\lib\Drupal\Core\Database\database.api.php: another file which describes the Database API array structure! • Schema Reference on drupal.org for D7. Yeah, there is no D8 version of the docs… Hopefully, nothing has changed between D7 and D8. After some research, I found the files which are responsible for schema to SQL statement conversion: File location Method name$DRUPAL_ROOT\core\includes\schema.inc drupal_install_schema (8.2.x)
$DRUPAL_ROOT\core\includes\database.inc (deprecated) db_create_table (8.2.x) (deprecated)$DRUPAL_ROOT\core\lib\Drupal\Core\Database\Schema.php protected createTable (8.2.x)
$DRUPAL_ROOT\core\lib\Drupal\Core\Database\Driver\{mysql,sqlite,pgsql}\Schema.php$DRUPAL_ROOT\core\lib\Drupal\Core\Database\Driver\{mysql,sqlite,pgsql}\Schema.php

### Result

Rendered table from a render array

### Instructions

I will be creating a dedicated module using Drupal Console for this event subscriber. But feel free to use your own if you already have one! (don’t forget to backup)

1. Access the drupal root folder in command line.
2. Generate a new module:
3. Generate the event subscriber. We will subscribe to the kernel.request event:
4. Current state:
5. Install the module using either drupal module:install or drush pm-enable:
6. Now, refresh your web page and on each request received server side, a message will tell you the event occurred!

### The code

• Unlike service type class service dependency injection, there may be no need to implement an interface to be able to load the needed services, such as extending from ControllerBase. So if you are extending from a class which already has the dependency injection implementation, you can just override the create and __construct methods. Don’t forget to call parent methods if needed.
• Think of the create method as the model used by the __construct of your class.
• The create signature needs to respect the one of the implemented interface (use your IDE to check against the original declaration).
• Originally made and tested on Drupal 8.2.x.
• A convenient list of core services can be found here: https://api.drupal.org/api/drupal/core%21core.services.yml/8.2.x (don’t forget to select the Drupal version if you are not on 8.2.x).
• Some classes such as ones extending BlockBase will need to implement interfaces to access this pattern:

J’ai quitté volontiers l’industrie du jeu vidéo, ayant perdu toute motivation d’y travailler. L’entreprise dans laquelle j’avais passé plus de quatre ans à essayer de produire des jeux et des applications est sur le point de fermer définitivement. Un chapitre de ma vie est en train de se clore, j’imagine.

Avais-je dit que j’étais rentré en France il y a quelques mois ? Bon, ben c’est fait. J’avais la tête tellement dans le cul que j’ai oublié de le mentionner. Je n’ai rien trouvé de pertinent sur Montréal hormis des éventuels boulots de testeur dans le jeu et l’applicatif. Pour un game designer et développeur, ce n’est pas très sérieux et j’ai écouté les conseils de proches m’invitant à arrêter l’expérience.

Avec le recul, je pense pouvoir dire que se dédier aux jeux vidéo, dans l’état actuel du monde, c’est le mode difficile des carrières. J’ai côtoyé de nombreuses personnalités, des personnes sympathiques et ouvertes, et leurs contraires menteurs ou indolents. Mais surtout, j’y ai vu de la précarité. La mienne déjà, et surtout les autres et la pléthore de témoignages trouvables sur la toile. Et le temps qui défile, inlassablement.

Durant ce parcours du combattant, j’ai utilisé de nombreuses techniques et outils de développement :

• développement logiciel : Virtools 5, Unity en UnityScript puis en C#, un coup de Java sur Android, Cocos2D-x en C++
• art : Illustrator, Photoshop, Premiere Pro, After Effects, Blender, FLStudio
• sites web : HTML5, PHP5 (OOP uniquement), CSS, LESS, un soupçon de Javascript et de jQuery, un chouilla de SQL, quelques notions d’Apache
• IDE : Visual Studio, Xcode, Eclipse, Android Studio
• outils divers : SVN, Git, Mercurial, SourceTree, JIRA, VirtualBox, 5 navigateurs desktop, 2 navigateurs mobiles

Une bonne partie d’entre eux appris en autodidaxie, par passion comme on pourrait le dire. Mais apparemment, cela ne suffit pas à convaincre lorsque j’avais voulu rentrer dans le rang après une longue période en indépendance. Trop généraliste ? Pas d’expérience ? Des entretiens foireux ? Les raisons m’empêchant de retourner à l’emploi dans ce secteur sont nombreuses et je n’ai pas le temps ni l’envie de les énumérer ici. Par contre, je n’ai pas vraiment essayé de tirer profit de mon réseau professionnel. Bien que réduit, il aurait pu aboutir à quelque chose, mais encore une fois, il s’agit de probabilités. Je suis du genre à vouloir expérimenter par moi-même, me prouver que je peux convaincre grâce à ce que j’ai fait par le passé, sans utiliser d’artifices. Et force est de constater que c’est un beau fail.

### Et ensuite ?

Je reste intéressé par le jeu vidéo, mais de manière plus diffuse et personnelle ; ayant toujours des projets en cours et aimant réfléchir à des designs. Mais le travail en équipe, c’est terminé.

À partir d’aujourd’hui, je vais commencer à écrire des articles à propos de Drupal, l’outil qui va être dans quelques semaines mon principal centre d’intérêt technologique ! En effet, j’ai rejoint une formation de type Préparation Opérationnelle à l’Emploi Individuelle grâce à Pôle Emploi dans un organisme de formation qui s’appelle Trained People. Moi qui pensais ne plus vouloir y remettre les pieds, décidément.

L’écosystème Drupal est si différent de celui des outils du jeu vidéo. Déjà, l’approche open source m’a toujours attiré. Je me rends bien compte à quel point le jeu vidéo est un milieu basé sur le secret, où chacun veut protéger sa petite idée de peur de se faire voler l’idée du siècle. Bien sûr, tout n’est pas parfait, notamment sur Drupal et sa documentation imbuvable. Mais voir un tel effort collectif pour faire fonctionner des milliers de modules contribués gratuitement, ça reste un point qui me donne envie de mettre la main à la pâte.

Étrangement, malgré une expérience bien foireuse ici en intérim juste avant, tout se passe à merveille depuis décembre 2016, c’est-à-dire dès que je suis entré dans le processus de recrutement de la formation.

Enraged

After having spent more than a day on the matter, I have finally figured out how to remove the Couldn’t add widget block in the Overview Screen. This is the block which appears in place of the Google search bar on top of the recent apps list after you have disabled the Google app.

### Step by step

1. Open the Play Store.
2. Install KISS Launcher.
5. Touch the Home button.
6. Set the KISS Launcher as default launcher.
7. Reboot in Safe Mode (the process may differ on your Android OS):
1. press the power button,
2. long touch on the Power Off button,
3. touch OK.
8. When the reboot is done, the Google bar should have returned in the Overview Screen.
• On this step, the bar wasn’t interactable on my phone.
9. Power off normally your device.
11. When the reboot is done, the Google bar should still be in the Overview Screen.
12. Go to Settings > Apps > ALL.
13. Disable the Google app. Accept everything when it says it will uninstall updates and data.
14. Touch the Home button.
15. Wait a few seconds.
16. Open the Overview Screen.
17. Enjoy!

• I have succeeded two times on a nearly fresh install of Android 5.1 (Lollipop) on a Moto E.
• I have updated a lot of native apps until the internal storage was full (yes, on the 1st gen Moto E 4GB, you cannot have all the default apps up to date with the tiny internal storage space).
• A lot of websites and user feedback will tell you to just restart in Safe Mode to remove the bar. It did not do the trick on my phone for some reason.
• I had to try a lot of possibilities so I don’t remember exactly what are the triggers for the bar removal. My guess is a combination of the KISS Launcher as default launcher app, a Google App up to date before disabling, and reboots between Safe Mode and normal mode, and maybe a full internal memory.
• The only apps disabled when the bar removed itself after the disabling were:
• Assist (by Motorola)
• Motorola Migrate
• Help (by Motorola)
• Email (the default Android app)
• The only apps enabled but not up to date were:
• Google Play Movies & TV
• Maps – Navigation & Transit
• Motorola Camera
• The remaining apps were up to date.
• Third party apps installed from the Play Store:
• Amaze File Manager
• SuperSU
• Third party apps installed from the SD Card includes:
• I did not remove KISS Launcher afterwards because I like it. But feel free to change to another launcher. I guess it will work.
• Pour les francophones, la méthode démontrée ci-dessus indique comment retirer le bloc avec le message « Impossible d’ajouter le widget » dans l’écran « Overview » qui affiche la liste des applications récentes (gestionnaire de tâches).
• The step by step needs to be more accurate so I am wishing to get some feedback.

### The maths behind

To get the point where two lines intersect, we will do some maths. To the mathematicians who will come across this post, I’m truly sorry for the heart attacks or strokes you may experience by reading this post.

Ok, let’s take a look on the figure:

Figure 1

First, sorry, I was too lazy to make a proper figure using computer tools so I just put a scan. XD

Next, here are the definitions:

• $A$ & $B$: the two lines,
• $A_1, B_1$: the arbitrary starting points of the two lines,
• $A_2, B_2$: the arbitrary points which tells the direction of the two lines,
• $X$: the intersection point,
• $O$: the origin point.

Kewl. Now, what we want is the intersection point $X$ between those two lines. In other words, we want to know the position which starts from either lines’ arbitrary starting point, added by the direction of the line multiplied by a scalar value. So in our figure 1, the $X$ position is:

• the $A_1$ position added by the components of $\overrightarrow{A_1A_2}$ multiplied by an unknown which I named $\lambda$
• the $B_1$ position added by the components of $\overrightarrow{B_1B_2}$ multiplied by an unknown which I named $\mu$

In this case, it is clear that $\lambda = \mu = 0.5$ so it will be easy to check if our final formula is correct. 🙂

At the point of intersection, we know that:
$\begin{array}{rcl} \overrightarrow{OX} = \overrightarrow{OA_1} + \lambda\times\overrightarrow{A_1A_2} & and & \overrightarrow{OX} = \overrightarrow{OB_1} + \mu\times\overrightarrow{B_1B_2} \end{array}$

… which gives us:
$\begin{array}{rcl} \overrightarrow{OA_1} + \lambda\times\overrightarrow{A_1A_2} & = & \overrightarrow{OB_1} + \mu\times\overrightarrow{B_1B_2} \\ \overrightarrow{OA_1} - \overrightarrow{OB_1} & = & \mu\times\overrightarrow{B_1B_2} - \lambda\times\overrightarrow{A_1A_2} \end{array}$

But we can’t use this statement exactly like this to solve our equation as we cannot multiply and divide vectors in this raw format. Also we need to reduce the unkowns count to 1. So we will separate our equation into two equations with the magic of matrices (which I don’t understand well at the moment), one for the x component and one for the y:
$\left\{\begin{array}{c} \overrightarrow{OA_1}_x - \overrightarrow{OB_1}_x = \mu\times\overrightarrow{B_1B_2}_x - \lambda\times\overrightarrow{A_1A_2}_x \\ \overrightarrow{OA_1}_y - \overrightarrow{OB_1}_y = \mu\times\overrightarrow{B_1B_2}_y - \lambda\times\overrightarrow{A_1A_2}_y \end{array}\right.$

To make our equation more readable, we will use some shorthands:
$\begin{array}{r}A_\alpha = \overrightarrow{A_1A_2}\end{array}\\ \begin{array}{r}B_\alpha = \overrightarrow{B_1B_2}\end{array}\\ \begin{array}{r}C = \overrightarrow{OA_1} - \overrightarrow{OB_1}\end{array}$

… so:
$\left\{\begin{array}{c} C_x = \mu B_{\alpha x} - \lambda A_{\alpha x} \\ C_y = \mu B_{\alpha y} - \lambda A_{\alpha y} \end{array}\right.$

From this point, we can reduce the unknown count. In my case, I have chosen to keep $\mu$ instead of $\lambda$:
$\left\{\begin{array}{c} C_x A_{\alpha y} = \mu B_{\alpha x} A_{\alpha y} - \lambda A_{\alpha x} A_{\alpha y} \\ C_y A_{\alpha x} = \mu B_{\alpha y} A_{\alpha x} - \lambda A_{\alpha y} A_{\alpha x} \end{array}\right.\\ \begin{array}{rcl} C_x A_{\alpha y} - C_y A_{\alpha x} & = & \mu B_{\alpha x} A_{\alpha y} - \lambda A_{\alpha x} A_{\alpha y} - (\mu B_{\alpha y} A_{\alpha x} - \lambda A_{\alpha y} A_{\alpha x}) \\ C_x A_{\alpha y} - C_y A_{\alpha x} & = & \mu B_{\alpha x} A_{\alpha y} - \lambda A_{\alpha x} A_{\alpha y} - \mu B_{\alpha y} A_{\alpha x} + \lambda A_{\alpha y} A_{\alpha x} \\ C_x A_{\alpha y} - C_y A_{\alpha x} & = & \mu B_{\alpha x} A_{\alpha y} - \mu B_{\alpha y} A_{\alpha x} \\ C_x A_{\alpha y} - C_y A_{\alpha x} & = & \mu (B_{\alpha x} A_{\alpha y} - B_{\alpha y} A_{\alpha x}) \\ \mu & = & \frac{C_x A_{\alpha y} - C_y A_{\alpha x}}{B_{\alpha x} A_{\alpha y} - B_{\alpha y} A_{\alpha x}} \end{array}$

And finally, you have to check if $B_{\alpha x} A_{\alpha y} - B_{\alpha y} A_{\alpha x} = 0$. This will happen if your two lines are parallel or if there is one line defined as a point such as $A_1 = A_2$ or $B_1 = B_2$; no solution exists in those cases.

#### Test 1

Kewl! Now let’s try it with the Figure 1:
$\begin{array}{rcl} \mu & = & \frac{(1 - 1) \times 1 - (2 - 4) \times 2}{2 \times 1 - (-3) \times 2} \\ \mu & = & \frac{4}{8} = 0.5 \end{array}$

We can get the $X$ position:
$\left\{\begin{array}{l} \overrightarrow{OX}_x = \overrightarrow{OB_1}_x + B_{\alpha x} \times \mu = 1 + 2 \times 0.5 = 2 \\ \overrightarrow{OX}_y = \overrightarrow{OB_1}_y + B_{\alpha y} \times \mu = 4 + (-3) \times 0.5 = 2.5 \end{array}\right.$

#### Test 2

Ok done! Now let’s try with another figure:

Figure 2

$\begin{array}{rcl} \mu & = & \frac{((-2) - 2) \times (-1) - ((-2) - (-3)) \times 0}{(-1.5) \times (-1) - 1.5 \times 0} \\ \mu & = & \frac{4}{1.5} \approx 2.666 \end{array}$

We can get the $X$ position:
$\left\{\begin{array}{l} \overrightarrow{OX}_x = \overrightarrow{OB_1}_x + B_{\alpha x} \times \mu = 2 + (-1.5) \times 2.666 = -2 \\ \overrightarrow{OX}_y = \overrightarrow{OB_1}_y + B_{\alpha y} \times \mu = (-3) + 1.5 \times 2.666 = 1 \end{array}\right.$

### Method 1: mega box collider

Use a single BoxCollider for all your planes. For example, if you have multiple aligned planes, remove their Collider component (Box, Mesh, whichever they have) and on only one of the planes, add a BoxCollider and adjust its center and size values in the component’s inspector to encapsulate all the planes.

• Simple.

#### Cons

• Supports only rectangular surfaces.

### Method 2: generated colliders

If you are rolling your ball on a non rectangular surface, you will need to find a way to generate a mesh collider for all your planes. For this, choose one of the following:

• Just works.

#### Cons

• Uses noticeable CPU power when updating (baking) the colliding mesh in real time. Update sparingly.

### Method 3: ramps as bridges

Create a set of meshes from a 3D software such as Blender to make invisible ramps which will be placed partly underground between your planes. They have to be large enough to make the transitions as smooth as possible. The height between the top of the bridge and the ground (the planes) should be approximately the value defined by the Default Contact Offset value in the Physics Manager.

#### Pros

• No real improvement.

#### Cons

• The ball may jump a little, especially at high speed.
• Doesn’t work with small tiling (or when your successive planes are small): the longer the tiles, the longer bridges can be.
• Requires a lot of testing.
• Requires 3D software usage.
• The result is not consistent.
• Requires good workflow / toolchain.

### Method 4: make custom extended planes’ colliders

This one should not work very well.

Create in a 3D software a planar mesh. Then, on its edges, extrude towards outside and lower down slightly the new edges. To put the words into image:

Credits: Richard Drdul — cc-by-sa-2.0 (original)

Make them intersect, and hopefully the bouncing will be invisible.

#### Pros

• Quite simple.

#### Cons

• The ball may jump a little, especially at high speed.
• Requires a lot of testing.
• Requires 3D software usage.
• The result is not consistent.
• Requires good workflow / toolchain.

### Method 5: turn slightly your planes’ colliders

Make your planes’ colliders slightly rotated so that, in the direction of movement, the end of a collider is slightly above the next plane’s collider. The height should be approximately the value defined by the Default Contact Offset value in the Physics Manager and hopefully no bouncing will occur.

#### Pros

• Works flawlessly.

#### Cons

• You will see the ball flying and falling a few units from one plane to another.

### Method 6: do everything by script

Maybe the Physics is not what is the best for your gameplay. Write your own system with accelerations, collision detection. This is the old-fashioned way and is the choice of a lot of developers! ^^

#### Pros

• Works flawlessly.
• Permits game design driven gameplay and not by physics.

#### Cons

• Not using the PhysX forces and gravity.
• Requires to work (omg! 😉 ) to simulate fake physics.

### Method 7: Make your ball much larger

By using a greater ball (x10, x100), this could lead to less edge detection.

• May work.

#### Cons

• The scale of the simulation would change: if you make everything at the same scale as the ball, objects falling by gravity will look like they fall in slow motion.
• The result is not consistent.

### Method 8: collision layers and raycast

This one is pretty cool.

1. Keep single BoxColliders for each plane. Set the layer of the plane prefab to SinglePlanes (create the layer).
2. Make a big Unity cube with a collider which encapsulates all the planes. Set the layer of the cube to ContinuousPlane.
3. Create two layers: OnAPlane and NotOnAPlane.
4. Set the ball prefab’s layer to OnAPlane.
5. In Physics Manager, set the collision matrix so that:
• NotOnAPlane and ContinuousPlane are not collidable (unchecked),
• OnAPlane and SinglePlanes are not collidable (unchecked).
6. On each Update(), do a raycast from the center of the ball towards Vector3.down on the layer SinglePlanes:
7. If the raycast returns false, the center of the ball is not on a plane. So now, we change the layer of the ball to NotOnAPlane. The ball will start to fall through the hole.
8. If the raycast returns true, set the layer of the ball to OnAPlane.

For how to define a layer, please check the manual.

#### Pros

• Works efficiently with dynamic floor layout.
• You will learn how to deal with layers and Physics.

#### Cons

• No real flaws.

• Methods above may be combined.
• You can adjust the physics project settings and / or set the physics materials to reduce the bounciness of your objects.
• Make sure the thickness of the planes collision is not 0f. Make them 1f large or more.
• There is a possibility to reduce the bounces, but I am not recommending it (may cause jittery and physics artifacts): set the Default Contact Offset to 0.0001. Again, I am not recommending it!
• All of this post could be useless when the default PhysX embedded in Unity will be upgraded.
• I originally posted this post as an answer on the Unity Answers website but none of the above methods have been considered as valid by the OP. Hence the removal from the answers website.

Try to avoid naming your MonoBehaviour methods Main(). These would be triggered between Awake() and Start(). This Main() method supports IEnumerator flavors as much as Awake() and alike! But as useful as it could be, I would not recommend to use it as there is no official documentation entry in the manual. And usually, you should not need this method.

Évitez de nommer Main() les méthodes se situant dans vos MonoBehaviour. Celles-ci seraient déclenchées entre Awake() et Start(). Cette méthode Main() supporte la version en IEnumerator autant que Awake() et les autres ! Mais aussi utile que pourrait être cette méthode, je ne la recommanderais pas à l’usage puisqu’il n’existe aucune documentation officielle dans le manuel. Et normalement, vous ne devriez pas avoir recours à cette méthode.

Awake() is fired, then Main() and finally Start(). But don’t use Main()!